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Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit


Three incarnation lines dominate history of the Pema Lingpa tradition. It is the incarnate hierarchs in these three lines who passed down the religious teachings and practices through the centuries in a alternating master-disciple relationship.

1. Peling Sungtrul (Pad gling gsung sprul), who are considered reincarnations of Pema Lingpa himself and were based in Lhalung in Tibet and Tamzhing in Bhutan. See images.

2. Lhalung Thugse (lHa lung thugs sras), who are incarnations of Padma Glingpa’s son Zla ba rGyal mtshan (b.1499). See images.

3. Gangteng Tulku (sGang steng sprul sku), who are considered reincarnations of Pema Lingpa’s grandson Pema Thinley (1564-1642?) See images.

These three incarnation lines have played prominent roles in the Bhutanese society and Himalayan history and thrive to this day.